Intel® Server System H2216WPFKR

Specifications

  • Product Collection Intel® Server System H2000WP Family
  • Code Name Products formerly Washington Pass
  • Launch Date Q3'12
  • Status Discontinued
  • Expected Discontinuance Q1'13
  • EOL Announce Sunday, March 31, 2013
  • Last Order Monday, September 30, 2013
  • Last Receipt Attributes Friday, January 31, 2014
  • Limited 3-year Warranty Yes
  • Extended Warranty Available for Purchase (Select Countries) Yes
  • Chassis Form Factor 2U Rack
  • Chassis Dimensions 3.5'' x 17.2'' x 29.5''
  • Board Form Factor Custom 6.8'' x 18.9''
  • Rack Rails Included Yes
  • Compatible Product Series Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2600 v2 Product Family
  • Socket Socket R
  • Heat Sink 8
  • Heat Sink Included Yes
  • System Board Intel® Server Board S2600WPF
  • Board Chipset Intel® C602 Chipset
  • Target Market High Performance Computing
  • Rack-Friendly Board Yes
  • Power Supply 1600 W
  • Power Supply Type AC
  • # of Power Supply Included 2
  • Redundant Fans No
  • Redundant Power Supported Yes
  • Backplanes Included
  • Included Items Integrated 2U 4Nodes server system including (4) Intel(r) Server Board S2600WPF with InfiniBand FDR (56Gb/s), (4) Bridge Board, (4) Node Power Board, (4) PCIe x16 Riser Card, (8) 1U Passive 84mm x 106mm Heat Sink, (12) 4056 Dual Rotor Fan, (4) Air Duct, (4) 1U Node Tray, (1) 2.5'' SATA/SAS Backplane to support 16x 2.5" Hot-Swap HDD, (16) 2.5'' Drive Carriers, (2) 1600W Common Redundant Power Supplies (Platinum Efficiency), (2) Power Distribution Boards, Value Rails

Supplemental Information

  • Description Intel® Server System with 4x hot-pluggable Intel® Compute Module HNS2600WPF with InfiniBand FDR in a 2U rackable chassis, supporting 16x 2.5" Hot-Swap HDD, 64 DIMMs, 2x 1600W Common Redundant Power Supplies (Platinum Efficiency), and value rail
  • Additional Information View now

Memory & Storage

Processor Graphics

I/O Specifications

Package Specifications

  • Max CPU Configuration 8

Ordering and Compliance

Retired and discontinued

Intel® Server System H2216WPFKR, Single

  • MM# 921318
  • Ordering Code H2216WPFKR

Trade compliance information

  • ECCN 5A992C
  • CCATS G145323
  • US HTS 8473305100

PCN/MDDS Information

Compatible Products

Intel® Xeon® Processor E5 v2 Family

Product Name Status Launch Date # of Cores Processor Base Frequency Cache TDP Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2603 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 4 1.80 GHz 10 MB Intel® Smart Cache 80 W 2244
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2609 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 4 2.50 GHz 2.50 GHz 10 MB Intel® Smart Cache 80 W 2273
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2620 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 6 2.60 GHz 2.10 GHz 15 MB Intel® Smart Cache 80 W 2312
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2630 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 6 3.10 GHz 2.60 GHz 15 MB Intel® Smart Cache 80 W 2360
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2630L v2 Discontinued Q3'13 6 2.80 GHz 2.40 GHz 15 MB Intel® Smart Cache 60 W 2376
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2637 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 4 3.80 GHz 3.50 GHz 15 MB Intel® Smart Cache 130 W 2389
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2640 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 8 2.50 GHz 2.00 GHz 20 MB Intel® Smart Cache 95 W 2409
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2643 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 6 3.80 GHz 3.50 GHz 25 MB Intel® Smart Cache 130 W 2424
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2650 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 8 3.40 GHz 2.60 GHz 20 MB Intel® Smart Cache 95 W 2445
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2650L v2 Discontinued Q3'13 10 2.10 GHz 1.70 GHz 25 MB Intel® Smart Cache 70 W 2458
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2660 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 10 3.00 GHz 2.20 GHz 25 MB Intel® Smart Cache 95 W 2474
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2667 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 8 4.00 GHz 3.30 GHz 25 MB Intel® Smart Cache 130 W 2481
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2670 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 10 3.30 GHz 2.50 GHz 25 MB Intel® Smart Cache 115 W 2491
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2680 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 10 3.60 GHz 2.80 GHz 25 MB Intel® Smart Cache 115 W 2505
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2690 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 10 3.60 GHz 3.00 GHz 25 MB Intel® Smart Cache 130 W 2524
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2695 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 12 3.20 GHz 2.40 GHz 30 MB Intel® Smart Cache 115 W 2537
Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-2697 v2 Discontinued Q3'13 12 3.50 GHz 2.70 GHz 30 MB Intel® Smart Cache 130 W 2550

Intel® Xeon® Processor E5 Family

Compare
All | None

Intel® Integrated RAID (Modules/System Boards)

Product Name Status Board Form Factor RAID Level Supported # of Ports Internal # of Ports External Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Integrated RAID Module RMS25KB080 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 1E, 10 8 0 51360
Intel® Integrated RAID Module RMS25KB040 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 1E, 10 4 0 51362

Intel® RAID Controllers

Product Name Status Board Form Factor RAID Level Supported # of Ports Internal # of Ports External Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® RAID Controller RS3FC044 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 1E, 10 4 4 51532
Intel® RAID Controller RS25DB080 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 8 0 1GB 51542
Intel® RAID Controller RS25NB008 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 0 8 1GB 51545
Intel® RAID Controller RS25SB008 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 0 8 1GB 51548
Intel® RAID Controller RS25FB044 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 1E, 10 4 4 None 51551
Intel® RAID Controller RS25GB008 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card JBOD 0 8 None 51552
Intel® RAID Controller RS2BL040 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 4 0 512MB 51555
Intel® RAID Controller RS2BL080 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 8 0 512MB 51557
Intel® RAID Controller RS2MB044 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 4 4 512MB 51562
Intel® RAID Controller RS2PI008 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 0 8 512MB 51563
Intel® RAID Controller RS2PI008DE Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 0 8 512MB 51564
Intel® RAID Controller RS2SG244 Discontinued Full Height 1/2 Length PCIe Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 24 4 512MB 51565
Intel® RAID Controller RS2VB080 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 8 512MB 51567
Intel® RAID Controller RS2WC040 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50 4 0 None 51568
Intel® RAID Controller RS2WC080 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50 8 0 None 51569
Intel® RAID Controller RS2WG160 Discontinued Full Height 1/2 Length PCIe Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 16 0 512MB 51570
Intel® RAID Controller RT3WB080 Discontinued Low Profile MD2 Card 0, 1, 10, 5, 50, 6, 60 8 0 256MB 51572

Intel® RAID Software

Product Name Status RAID Level Supported # of Ports Internal # of Ports External Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® RAID C600 Upgrade Key RKSATA4R5 Launched 0, 1, 10, 5 4 0 51663
Intel® RAID C600 Upgrade Key RKSAS4 Discontinued 0, 1, 10 4 0 51666
Intel® RAID C600 Upgrade Key RKSAS4R5 Discontinued 0 1 10 5 4 0 51667

Bezel Options

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
2U Bezel A2UBEZEL Discontinued 52342

Drive Bay Options

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
6Gb/s SAS Accessory Kit AH2000WP6GKIT Discontinued 52590
RMM4 & rIOM Carrier Board Kit AXXRMM4IOMW Discontinued 52617

Management Module Options

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
Remote Management Module AXXRMM4LITE Discontinued 52818

Rail Options

Compare
All | None

Spare Board Options

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
Spare 6Gb/s SAS module RMS25LB Discontinued 53069

Spare Chassis Maintenance Options

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
Chassis Mechanical and Electrical Maintenance Kit FH2000WPMKIT Discontinued 53192

Spare Drive Bays & Carrier Options

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
2.5in Hot-Swap Drive Carrier FXX25HSCAR Discontinued 53268

Spare Fan Options

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
4056 Dual Rotor Fan Kit FXX4056DRFAN Discontinued 53357

Spare Heat-Sink Options

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
1U Heat Sink FXXCA84X106HS (Cu/Al 84mmx106mm) Discontinued 53424
1U Heat Sink FXXEA84X106HS (Ex-Al 84mmx106mm) Discontinued 53427

Spare Power Options

Spare Riser Card Options

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
1U PCI Express Low Profile Riser FHW1U16RISER Discontinued 53568

Intel® Server Component Extended Warranty

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Server System H2000 Extended Warranty Launched 53632

Intel® Server Board S2600WP Family

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Server Board S2600WPF Discontinued 53935

Intel® Compute Module HNS2600WP Family

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Compute Module HNS2600WPF Discontinued 54255

Intel® Server Chassis H2000 Family

Compare
All | None

Intel® Ethernet Converged Network Adapter X540

Product Name Status Cabling Type Port Configuration Data Rate Per Port System Interface Type Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Ethernet Converged Network Adapter X540-T1 Discontinued RJ45 Category 6 up to 55m; Category 6A up to 100m Single 10GbE/1GbE/100Mb PCIe v2.1 (5.0 GT/s) 41108
Intel® Ethernet Converged Network Adapter X540-T2 Discontinued RJ45 Category 6 up to 55 m; Category 6A up to 100 m Dual 10GbE/1GbE/100Mb PCIe v2.1 (5.0 GT/s) 41111

Intel® Ethernet Server Adapter X520

Product Name Status Cabling Type Port Configuration Data Rate Per Port System Interface Type Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Ethernet Converged Network Adapter X520-DA2 Launched SFP+ Direct Attached Twin Axial Cabling up to 10m Dual 10/1GbE PCIe v2.0 (5.0 GT/s) 41122
Intel® Ethernet Converged Network Adapter X520-LR1 Discontinued SMF up to 10km Single 10/1GbE PCIe v2.0 (5.0 GT/s) 41132
Intel® Ethernet Converged Network Adapter X520-SR1 Discontinued MMF up to 300m Single 10/1GbE PCIe v2.0 (5.0 GT/s) 41136
Intel® Ethernet Converged Network Adapter X520-T2 Discontinued RJ-45 Category-6 up to 55 m; Category-6A up to 100 m 19 W Dual PCIe v2.0 (5.0 GT/s) 41144

Intel® Gigabit ET Server Adapter Series

Product Name Status Cabling Type TDP Port Configuration System Interface Type Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Gigabit ET2 Quad Port Server Adapter Discontinued Category 5 up to 100m 8.4 W Quad PCIe v2.0 (2.5 GT/s) 41245
Intel® Gigabit ET Dual Port Server Adapter Discontinued Category 5 up to 100m 2.9 W Dual PCIe v2.0 (2.5 GT/s) 41248

Intel® Gigabit EF Server Adapter Series

Product Name Status Cabling Type TDP Port Configuration System Interface Type Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Gigabit EF Dual Port Server Adapter Discontinued MMF 50um up to 550m; MMF 62.5um up to 275m 2.2 W Dual PCIe v2.0 (2.5 GT/s) 41254

Intel® Ethernet Server Adapter I350 Series

Product Name Status Cabling Type TDP Port Configuration System Interface Type Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Ethernet Server Adapter I350-F2 Launched MMF 50um up to 550m; MMF 62.5um up to 275m 5.5 W Dual PCIe v2.1 (5.0 GT/s) 41268
Intel® Ethernet Server Adapter I350-F4 Launched MMF 50um up to 550m; MMF 62.5um up to 275m 6 W Quad PCIe v2.1 (5.0 GT/s) 41271

Intel® Ethernet Server Adapter I340 Series

Product Name Status Cabling Type TDP Port Configuration System Interface Type Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Ethernet Server Adapter I340-F4 Discontinued MMF 50um up to 550m; MMF 62.5um up to 275m 4.5 W Quad PCIe v2.0 (5.0 GT/s) 41289
Intel® Ethernet Server Adapter I340-T4 Discontinued Category-5 up to 100m 4.3 W Quad PCIe v2.0 (5.0 GT/s) 41295

Intel® PRO/1000 PT Server Adapter Series

Product Name Status Cabling Type TDP Port Configuration System Interface Type Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® PRO/1000 PT Dual Port Server Adapter Discontinued Category-5 up to 100m 4.95 W Dual PCIe v1.0a (2.5 GT/s) 41898
Intel® PRO/1000 PT Quad Port Low Profile Server Adapter Discontinued Category-5 up to 100m 12 W Quad PCIe v1.0a (2.5 GT/s) 41917

Intel® SSD DC S3700 Series

Product Name Capacity Status Form Factor Interface Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® SSD DC S3700 Series (800GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 25nm, MLC) 800 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49324
Intel® SSD DC S3700 Series (400GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 25nm, MLC) 400 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49352
Intel® SSD DC S3700 Series (200GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 25nm, MLC) 200 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49389
Intel® SSD DC S3700 Series (100GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 25nm, MLC) 100 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49422

Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series

Product Name Capacity Status Form Factor Interface Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series (800GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 20nm, MLC) 800 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49494
Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series (600GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 20nm, MLC) 600 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49546
Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series (480GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 20nm, MLC) 480 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49561
Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series (300GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 20nm, MLC) 300 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49642
Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series (240GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 20nm, MLC) 240 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49669
Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series (160GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 20nm, MLC) 160 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49718
Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series (120GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 20nm, MLC) 120 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49772
Intel® SSD DC S3500 Series (80GB, 2.5in SATA 6Gb/s, 20nm, MLC) 80 GB Discontinued 2.5" 7mm SATA 3.0 6Gb/S 49806

Intel® Data Center Manager

Product Name Status Sort Order Compare
All | None
Intel® Data Center Manager Console Launched 60086

Drivers and Software

Latest Drivers & Software

Downloads Available:
All

Name

Download Save and Restore System Configuration Utility (SYSCFG)

Download Intel® One Boot Flash Update (Intel® OFU) Utility

Download System Information Retrieval Utility (SysInfo)

Download System Event Log (SEL) Viewer Utility

Download Intel® Embedded Server RAID Technology 2 (ESRT2) Linux* Driver for Intel® Server Boards and Systems Based on Intel® 60X Chipset

Download EFI Platform Confidence Test Utility for Intel® Server Systems and Boards Based on Intel® Xeon® Processor E5-1600/2400/2600/4600 v1 and v2 Product Families (for Test Use Only; no Technical Support)

Download Onboard Video Driver for Windows* for Legacy Intel® Server Boards and Systems

Download RAID Interactive Tutorial for Intel® Rapid Storage Technology Enterprise (Intel® RSTe)

Download RAID Interactive Tutorial for Intel® Embedded Software RAID Technology 2 (ESRT2)

Download Intel® Chipset Device Software for HECI

Download H2000 Power budget and thermal configuration tool

Technical Documentation

Launch Date

The date the product was first introduced.

Expected Discontinuance

Expected Discontinuance is an estimate of when a product will begin the Product Discontinuance process. The Product Discontinuance Notification (PDN), published at the start of the discontinuance process, will include all EOL Key Milestone details. Some business units may communicate EOL timeline details before the PDN is published. Contact your Intel representative for information on EOL timelines and extended life options.

Memory Types

Intel® processors come in four different types: Single Channel, Dual Channel, Triple Channel, and Flex Mode. Maximum supported memory speed may be lower when populating multiple DIMMs per channel on products that support multiple memory channels.

Max # of DIMMs

DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module) is a series of DRAM (Dynamic Random-Access Memory) IC's mounted on a small printed circuit board.

Max Memory Size (dependent on memory type)

Max memory size refers to the maximum memory capacity supported by the processor.

Integrated Graphics

Integrated graphics allow for incredible visual quality, faster graphic performance and flexible display options without the need for a separate graphics card.

PCIe x16 Gen 3

PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is a high speed serial computer expansion bus standard for attaching hardware devices to a computer. This field indicates the number of PCIe sockets for the given lane configuration (x8, x16) and PCIe generation (1.x, 2.x).

Connector for Intel® I/O Expansion Module x8 Gen 3

IO expansion indicates a mezzanine connector on Intel® Server Boards that support a variety of Intel® I/O Expansion Modules using a PCI Express* interface. These modules typically have external ports that are accessed on the rear I/O panel.

Total # of SATA Ports

SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) is a high speed standard for connecting storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives to a motherboard.

RAID Configuration

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a storage technology that combines multiple disk drive components into a single logical unit, and distributes data across the array defined by RAID levels, indicative of the level of redundancy and performance required.

# of Serial Ports

A Serial Port is a computer interface used for connecting peripherals.

Integrated LAN

Integrated LAN indicates the presence of an integrated Intel Ethernet MAC or presence of the LAN ports built into the system board.

# of LAN Ports

LAN (Local Area Network) is a computer network, typically Ethernet, that interconnects computers over a limited geographical area such as a single building.

Integrated SAS Ports

Integrated SAS indicates Serial Attached SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) support integrated into the board. SAS is a high speed standard for connecting storage devices such as hard disk drives and optical drives to a motherboard.

Embedded USB (eUSB) Solid State Drive Option

Embedded USB (Universal Serial Bus) supports small USB flash storage devices which can be plugged directly into the board, and can be used for mass storage or a boot device.

Integrated InfiniBand*

Infiniband is a switched fabric communications link used in high-performance computing and enterprise data centers.

Intel® Remote Management Module Support

The Intel® Remote Management Module (Intel® RMM) allows you to securely gain access and control servers and other devices from any machine on the network. Remote access includes remote management capability, including power control, KVM, and media redirection, with a dedicated management network interface card (NIC).

Integrated BMC with IPMI

IPMI (Intelligent Platform Management Interface) is a standardized interface used for out-of-band management of computer systems. The integrated BMC (Baseboard Management Controller) is a specialized microcontroller that enables IPMI.

Intel® Node Manager

Intel® Intelligent Power Node Manager is a platform resident technology that enforces power and thermal policies for the platform. It enables data center power and thermal management by exposing an external interface to management software through which platform policies can be specified. It also enables specific data center power management usage models such as power limiting.

Intel® Advanced Management Technology

Intel® Advanced Management Technology features an isolated, independent, secure, and highly reliable network connection, with an Integrated Baseboard Management Controller (Integrated BMC) configuration from within BIOS. Also includes an embedded web user interface that launches key platform diagnostic capabilities over the network, an out-of-band (OOB) platform inventory, failsafe firmware updates, and an automatic Integrated BMC stall detection and reset.

Intel® Server Customization Technology

Intel® Server Customization technology enables Resellers and System Builders to offer end customers a customized branded experience, SKU configuration flexibility, flexible boot options, and maximum I/O options.

Intel® Build Assurance Technology

Intel® Build Assurance technology provides advanced diagnostic features ensuring the most comprehensively tested, most thoroughly debugged, and most stable systems possible are shipped to customers.

Intel® Efficient Power Technology

Intel® Efficient Power Technology is a series of improvements within Intel power supplies and voltage regulators to increase power delivery efficiency and reliability. The technology is included in all common redundant power supplies (CRPS). CRPS includes the following technologies; 80 PLUS Platinum (92% efficient at 50% load) efficiency, cold redundancy, closed loop system protection, smart ride through, dynamic redundancy detection, black box recorder, compatibility bus, and auto firmware updates to provide more efficient power delivery to the system.

Intel® Quiet Thermal Technology

Intel® Quiet Thermal Technology is a series of thermal and acoustic management innovations that reduce unnecessary acoustic noise and provide cooling flexibility while maximizing efficiency . The technology includes capabilities such as advanced thermal sensory arrays, advanced cooling algorithms, and built in fail-safe shutdown protection.

Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-d)

Intel® Virtualization Technology for Directed I/O (VT-d) continues from the existing support for IA-32 (VT-x) and Itanium® processor (VT-i) virtualization adding new support for I/O-device virtualization. Intel VT-d can help end users improve security and reliability of the systems and also improve performance of I/O devices in virtualized environments.

TPM Version

TPM (Trusted Platform Module) is a component that provides hardware level security upon system boot-up via stored security keys, passwords, encryption and hash functions.